Q. 144:            “You made another entry on the 27th of May, 1966, what Mr. Richardson told a group of Tiv and Hausa students?” “What I wrote in my diary is that Mr. Richardson told us, thinking I was a Northerner, that if we protested against the Civil Service decree, we would be taken to be fighting for a just cause and for our right.”

Q. 146:            “You made another entry on the 28th of May?" “Yes Sir.” “Read it out please" “Mr. Lawrence and some Northern students met at Aminu's room from about 11 p.m to 2a.m. I noticed their presence at exactly 11.40 p.m. when I went to borrow a book from Mr. Akpedeye living on the same floor. I kept watch till 2 a.m when they came out and I saw them!!"

Q. 148:            “How does the mere fact that he lives on the same floor with Mr. Aminu make you see them all?” “This is so because when I went to borrow a book a student told me that Mr. Lawrence had just passed. When I looked at my time it was 11.40 p.m, so I climbed up to the other floor and from there I saw people entering Mr. Aminu’s room. Later on Mr. Lawrence came out and they locked the door behind him. So we continued to watch when they will come out until a few minutes after 2 a.m.”

Q. 149:            “And you saw them coming out?” “Yes.”

Q. 150:            “You made another entry on the 29th May, what was it?” “I made an entry to the effect that “Northern Students went on demonstration."

Q. 151:            “Before the January coup was it usual for lecturers to go and lock themselves up with students till late?" “Before the January coup we had not seen any lecturer around the hostels unless perhaps in the dining hall or in the common room. But after January 15th we started noticing their presence almost every time.”

Q. 153:            “So it was after that date that you started noticing?” “Yes, but even it was only some lecturers and not all of them."

Q. 154:            “Can you give us an idea of the lecturers who used to visit the students?" "It was only Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Richardson that we noticed during this period."

Q. 155:            “You were reading out your entry on the 29th?" “Yes."

Q. 156:            “Please read it out now" "Northern students went on demonstration and later in the day brought into the hostel foreign elements who stayed at different places in the hostel."

Q. 157:            “They brought in what?" "Strange people from the town."

Q. 158:            “Were they strange faces or faces not known to you? “They were strange faces as they were carrying daggers and bows and arrows."

Q. 160:            “What time did they leave?" “We did not know because after six o'clock the number continued to increase, so we disappeared to different lecturers' houses."

Q. 161:            “You said those strange elements continued to pour in until six o’clock when they increased to such extent you had to leave the place?" “Yes."

Q. 163:            "Where did you go when you left?" “I went with Mr. Anthony Moghana, and we slept in Mr. Woodman’s house."

Q. 164:            "You said that at six o'clock when the number grew to alarming proportion you left. Did you leave alone or with others?” "With others. We contacted other Eastern Nigeria students in other hostels and asked them to go where they would be secure.”

Q. 165:            "As these strange faces arrived did they have dangerous weapons?" "Yes. In fact one particular car made many trips bringing most of the weapons. We took note of the car which was No. KAB 2427."

Q. 167:            "Did you find out who had that car?" "I did not find out who had that car?" "Why" “l did not find out, but some people told me that it was owned by someone working in the Provincial Office. I do not know his name."

Q. 168:            "Was the fact of the presence of these foreign elements with their weapons brought to the notice of the authorities?" “We reported to Mr. Lawrence that very day. What he told us was that he had been assured that they will not touch any of us. But later on he told another students that they were looking for Ibos, and that since the student is from Mid-West he had nothing to fear."

Q. 169:            "But what did they explain to you was the purpose of their being in the Campus?" "We could not go to ask."

Q. 170:            "What we mean is: Did you ask Mr. Lawrence what these people wanted in the Campus?" “We did not ask him, but we told him that some people were coming into the Campus with dangerous weapons and that he should phone the Army to come and protect us. He assured us that we would not be harmed."

Q. 171:            "Who is this Mid-Westerner who said that Mr. Lawrence told him that they were looking for Ibos?" "He is Mr. Patrick Oniha."

Q. 172:            "By the way, how many Mid-Westerners had you in the Institute?" "There were about 8 Mid-Westerners. (There were 18 Eastern students at the Institute and 200 at the University of Ahmadu Bello)."

Q. 173:            "You mentioned earlier on that you and Mr. Anthony Moghana slept in Mr. Woodman's house that night. Who was this Mr. Woodman?" "He is one of the new lecturers. He came during our last year in University and we know he was detached from the local prejudices."

Q. 174:            "What do you say is the name of the other student?" “Anthony Moghana.”

Q. 175:            "Where is he from?" “From Awka."

Q. 176:            "You and Mr. Moghana slept in Mr. Woodman's house and Mr. Woodman is a lecturer?" "Yes."

Q. 177:            "What nationality?” “He is an English man, newly arrived in Nigeria."

Q. 178:            “Where did other students sleep?" "They slept in Mr. Cooper's house.”

Q. 179:            "Who is Mr. Cooper?” “He is an American.”

Q. 181:            "What about the remaining students?” “Some slept in the house of some American lecturers while others slept in the house of the man who is in-charge of U.S.A.I.D. in Zaria.”

Q. 182:            "So they slept mostly in the houses of the American lecturers?" "Yes, with the exception of myself and Mr. Anthony Moghana, the rest slept in American lecturers' houses."

Q. 183:            "What is the relative proportion of American lecturers to lecturers of British origin?" "The American lecturers are about six and the English lecturers about 7 with only one Nigerian on the staff."

Q. 185:            "For how long did this sleeping out continue?' "For about three days - 29th, 30th and 31st of May."

Q. 186:            "You have just mentioned 30th of May, what happened that day?" "On that day all Eastern students met Mr. Richardson and Mr. Lawrence who were directing the operations against Southerners. They gave us no satisfactory reply. There were requests for our protection. I had the opportunity to tell them that we knew they were planning the thing. Later we spoke to Army Offices in a van and they satisfied us."

Q. 188:            "What did they do when you told them you knew what they were planning?" "Mr. Lawrence said that he would sue me."

Q. 189:            "Was it this same Lawrence or Richardson who tried to prevent you from sleeping out?" "The same Lawrence."

Q. 190:            "He tried to prevent you from sleeping out?" "Yes, he tried to prevent us from sleeping out. In fact, he went to Mr. Cooper asking him whether he was hiding students!"

Q. 191:            "Could there have been any other reason why 16 of you chose to sleep with these American lecturers in preference to British lecturers?" Were the Americans longer in Zaria?” “No. Most of the were new people who were impartial because for the period we stayed there, we knew that the English lecturers did not like those of us from the East, so that we did not like going to sleep.”

Q. 192:            “So you believed that the Americans were impartial?” “Yes Sir.”

Q. 194:            “There is an entry at page 2 of the memorandum, under 29th May, 1966: “Mr. Lawrence accompanied by S.S. Richardson came to the Hostel …. follow what they called a peaceful demonstration.” This gives the impression that Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Richardson actually took part in the demonstration?” “Yes, they did because this student asked to join the peaceful demonstration is an Easterner and when they told him, he told them that he was not prepared to follow any demonstration.”

Q. 202:            “We have just heard your entry for 30th May. Any other entry for May? “Yes, there is 31st  - Hausas attacked the compound, wounded many but no student was wounded though two escaped narrowly.”

Q. 203:            “Do you remember the names of the two?” “Yes, Mr. Nkwoada. The other fellow is from the Mid-West. He was a first year student. I do not know his name.”

Q. 204:            “When you say “attacked and wounded many” who were the attackers if they were not students?” “The Hausas came from the town and entered the compound and if they saw anybody they shouted ‘Kai Yamiri’ and if you tried to run away they knew you were an Easterner and would attack.”

Q. 205:            “Were there no other Easterners in the compound other than students?" "Yes, there were others, some of them were cooks and personal servants to some lecturers. On the same day. what I wrote here is "Peter Osuji, driver, was attacked and killed. "

Q. 206:            "On the college premises?" "Yes. on the road."

Q. 207:            "who was he?" "He was a driver in the U.S.A.l.D."

Q. 208:            "To the USAID?" "Yes. Sir."

Q. 209:            "Is the USAID stationed there in the Institute?" "Yes. it is stationed there."

Q. 210:            "Did you see his body?" “Yes I saw his body from the library. The library is just near the road. If you looked outside you would see what was happening. The time they attacked was in the night. They could not get us in the morning. They came in morning at about 11 o’clock. By then most of us were in the library."

Q. 212:            "This Peter Osuji was an Easterner?" "Yes, he was an Easterner from Orlu Division."

Q. 213:            "How many persons of Eastern Nigeria origin or even Mid-West origin in the Institute were killed that day?" "The other cook was wounded and then rushed to the hospital. Because he was being taken to the hospital, the attackers followed and then killed many patients and even some workers."

Q. 225:            “You made another entry on the 1st of June, 1966?" “Yes."

Q. 226:            "What was it?" "Mr. Richardson said that there was trouble in Kano, Zaria and Kaduna and this proves that the Military Government has failed."

Q. 231:            “Did any of your lecturers encourage you to remain in the North, for example Richardson and Lawrence?" "No, when we told them that we know what they were planning they started to avoid us. In fact they did not see us until the day the result came out and we were leaving."

Q. 234:            “Now, to your knowledge, did the authorities of the University, or any of them, object to the bringing 0f weapons and looted property into the campus?" “None of them objected, even when we made a report that some students brought in looted property to the campus, there was nothing heard about it."

Q. 235:            “Did any of the lecturers disagree with the action of authorities at the Institute?" "Yes, one Mr. Bannerman, a Ghananian, reported the matter to the military authorities in Zaria and then left untimely. He had three years contract with the University, but after the May incident, he went and made a report to the military authorities and then from there he left."

Q. 236:            "What you are saying is that some lecturers did not approve of what was going on at the Institute?" "Yes, Sir."

Q. 238:            "Do you know when he resigned his appointment?" “On the 12th of June, 1966."

Q. 241:            “Did any other lecturer show a similar interest in the plight of the Easterners?" “Mr. X was also going to the military authorities in Zaria from time to time to report what was going on."

Q. 242:            “Who is Mr. X?" “He is and American lecturer."

Q. 243:            “Who did he report to?" “To the Lt. Col. in charge."

Q. 244:            “To your knowledge?" "Yes."

Q. 247:            "Has Mr. X shown any more interest in your plight?" “Yes, he came here some two weeks ago to see some of us who have graduated. He told me that he is no longer popular in the North and that when coming to the East he took the Western route and came through the Mid-West and when going back he took the same route."

Q. 250:            “I would like to ask whether you have any more information you would like to volunteer?" "The only information l have is that when Major Boyle was deported from the Samaru Compound Mr. Richardson was about to be deported. But according to information we gathered that all the English lecturers and some top civil servants protested that if Mr. Richardson went all of them would leave en masse. It was then that Lt. Col. Hassan arranged to come and see the lecturers at the Institute of Administration. On the day he came he did not want to meet the Americans, he met only the Englishmen. We did not know why that was so."

Q. 253:            "Just finally, did any other incident relating to these events strike you as important enough to be noted in this Exhibit L10.3?" "My diary says: "On the 24th of June, 1966, before I left Zaria I met Lt. Col. Akagha and explained to him what happened in the Institute of Administration. I also gave him a copy of our memorandum. He wanted to see Mr. Akiri."

Q. 254:            “Where is Mr. Akiri?" "He is working in the U.A.C. at Port Harcourt now."

Q. 255:            “How did Lt. Col. Akagha react?" "When we gave him our memorandum he was surprised that Mr. Richardson was still in Nigeria. From the report he made to Lagos Mr. Richardson was included among those to be repatriated."

Q. 256:            "Were there any students of Eastern Nigeria origin in Ahmadu Bello University proper?" “Yes."

Q. 257:            "In 1966?" "Yes. There were about 200 of them." We also reproduce hereunder the Memorandum dated the 16th June, 1966 submitted by the Students of the Institute of Administration Samaru to the then Supreme Commander of the Nigerian Armed Forces Major-General J.T.U.Aguiyi Ironsi and endorsed to the Military Governors of the Regions (then called Groups of Provinces). This Memorandum was submitted as Exhibit L10/2.

Institute of Administration,
Ahmadu Bello University,

16th June, 1966.

"His Excellency,
Major General J. T. U. Aguiyi-Ironsi,
Supreme Commander and Head of The National Military Government,
Republic of Nigeria, Lagos.

Copy to the Provincial Military Governors.

Your Excellency Sir,


We, the students of the above Institution consider it necessary to help the Military Government to probe into the recent disturbances in the Northern provinces.

It is almost unbelievable that some expatriate lecturers and people in such positions were solely responsible for formenting the recent disturbances.

Soon after the Government of Nigeria was handed over to the Armen Forces, Mr. S. S. Richardson, the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Director of the Institute of Administration in one of his circulars to staff and students said that "It was expected that after Salah festival there will be an uprising." This and such like statements were calculated to incite the students, particularly of Northern origin. In another address to the students he said that it would be surprising if somebody like the late Premier of the North would die in such a circumstance and there will be no reactions.

At this period, members of the N.P.C. Youth club held meetings at night. This was reported to Mr. S. S. Richardson but he said that the students were holding law society meeting. The law society meeting he referred to ended earlier before the other meeting which continued till early hours of the morning. It was discovered that the purpose of the meeting was to take the lives of students of Southern origin. Since Mr Richardson refused to probe into the allegation or provide protection for students, the matter was on the 21st of January, 1966 reported to the Commanding Officer of the Zaria Army Detachment. The Officer sent in soldiers from time to time at night.

Immediately after the broadcast of the 24th May, 1966. Mr, Richardson told groups of students that if they protested against the 'measures of the Military Government, they would be considered as defending their right and fighting for a good cause'.

The following sequence of events took place till 1st June:-

25th May, 1966:- We became aware that Hall Master Mr. Lawrence Institute of Administration, was meeting with a section of the Northern students. On this day they met at about 1.45 p.m. in Hostel 1 Room 29/30. The students present were Murtala Aminu, Paul Anyebe, Muhammed Arzika, B. 0thman, G. B. Homkwap.

28th May, 1966: Mr. Lawrence and the students mentioned above met again for a short period during the afternoon. It was at this time we observed that one business student from the University of Lagos, Mallam Mailhanu  who was once the secretary of the N.P.C. Youths Club was present. They met again at night from about 11.40 p.m. – about 2 a.m.
29th May, 1966: Mr. Lawrence accompanied by Mr. S. S. Richardson Institute of Administration, came to Hostel 1, at this time they talked to Mr. Anyebe and Murtala Aminu. At about 9.30 a.m. these two students led other Northern students out on demonstration. At the junction of a petrol station, Mr. Lawrence in the presence of Mr. Richardson, both accompanying the demonstrating students asked a student Mr. Kalu Akiri to follow what he called a peaceful demonstration.

At about 2 p.m. the students came back, two of them Ibrahim Omale and Mohammed Goni carrying looted property into the Hostel. Mohammed Anka boasted in the dining hall of setting a petrol station on fire and burning a ‘mighty shop’. This was confirmed by others who went out on demonstration.

Between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. a car No. KAB 2427 started bringing into the Institute of Administration people carrying daggers, bows and arrows. We met Mr. Lawrence who is the Hostel master and complained about what we saw, asking him to telephone the army to provide us with protection. He told us that he has been assured that we would not be harmed. Later he told a student, Patrick Oniha that he had nothing to fear that ‘those people were looking for Ibos only’. When these number of people carrying daggers increased in the compound, we left hostels secretly and slept with the lecturers we know are not involved. Later that night Mr. Richardson came to Mr. Cooper (American lecturer) asking him whether he was hiding some students. Mr. Cooper denied despite the fact that five of us were there.

30th May, 1966: Mr. Lawrence in class told Northern students that many southern students slept with lecturers, the previous night. The tension continued and students of Northern origin shouted slogans. We went to Mr. Richardson to tell him what was happening in his compound and requested him to call in the soldiers to protect few of us, he refused saying that even if he called them they would not come and that students were in worse danger on the 29th than on the 30th.

When we knew that Mr. Richardson had finally refused to help, we left his house and on coming out met an army patrol van. We called them and explained the situation to them. The soldiers later came back and patrolled the compound.

31st May, 1966: Hundreds of natives came into the compound for ‘Ibo students’ and shouting slogans. They carried daggers and bows and arrows. We saw that Mr. Richardson did nothing to stop these people rather he talked to people in an open van who were shouting slogans with a loud speaker. We locked ourselves indoors all day. The same night some natives surrounded Mr. Cooper’s house threatened to burn down the house if he failed to bring out those he was hiding. Compared with the question Mr. Richardson asked Mr. Cooper on the 29th, we discovered that either Mr. Richardson or Mr. Lawrence or their fellow organisers told the people about students in Mr. Cooper’s house.

On the 1st June at the Faculty of Law Quadrangle, Mr. Richardson said that there had been disturbances everywhere in Nigeria which showed that the Military had failed.

In conclusion, we express surprise to see that some expatriates, all of them old English District Officers have been inciting both students of Northern origin and other Northerners against the Government and other sections of Nigeria without any fear or respect to the Government. We therefore give this information to the Government to take appropriate steps to end the activities of these subversive foreign elements.

We are,
For and on behalf of Students of
Southern Origin in the Institute of Administration,

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